The US Department of Energy’s Energy Information Administration (EIA) has released April’s Electric Power Monthly, which showed that low emission electricity production declined despite a solar production increase of 14%, and despite newly installed capacity being 99% clean. The report provides data through the end of February 2021, and notes that in that month, photovoltaic (solar) generation grew 14% over February 2020, accounting for ~2.82% of total US electricity generated for the month versus 2.54% last year.
Total U.S. electricity use increased by 2.9% versus February of last year. And solar produced 18% more in the first two months of the year than it did in 2020.
Clean Electricity Generation Down
Comparing January and February 2021 with the prior year, the Electric Power Monthly report shows low CO2 electricity generation output declining 7,442 GWh. Nuclear declined over 5,400 GWh, hydro was down more than 3,400 GWh, and wind production dropped over 9%, by 2,724 GWh.
Together, these figures show 2.7% less clean electricity generated – in a year when total electricity use rose 3%!
Specifically, as noted in the chart above, February 2021 burnt 9.9% more fossils than February 2020. In fact, the only low emission electricity sources that grew in February compared to last year were solar and geothermal.
February of 2020 saw 42.3% of electricity coming from CO2 free sources. This past February, we were at 38.3% – fully 4% less.
This downturn in clean electricity generation occurred in a year following record wind and solar deployments. However, it might be more accurate to frame this as a return to normal. 2020 brought above average winds to the midwest, resulting in increased wind energy and thus a reduction in coal use. And due to covid-19, total electricity demand was down. Considering these outlying factors, perhaps we should take some of this data with a grain of salt.
Solar thermal is included in the above chart, but as it makes up less than 1/10th of a percent it was excluded by rounding error.
New Capacity Online
In January, the EIA tracked about 355.4 MWac/~444 MWdc of newly installed utility scale solar power.. That value put the solar industry over 100 GWdc of capacity installed across the United States.
In February that value increased to 672.6 MWac/~840 MWdc across 14 projects. The largest project that came online was the 255 MWac Greasewood facility in Pecos, Texas.
Texas expects greater than 10 GW of new solar capacity to come online through the end of 2022. The majority of capacity in the state’s pipeline is wind and solar, with almost 100 GW of solar listed in the ERCOT interconnection queue.
Texas, already the U.S. state with the most wind energy capacity, is catching up to California in utility-scale solar capacity. California currently has the most installed utility-scale solar capacity of any state. According to survey reports on EIA’s Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory, Texas will add 10 gigawatts (GW) of utility-scale solar capacity by the end of 2022, compared with 3.2 GW in California. One-third of the utility-scale solar capacity planned to come online in the United States in the next two years (30 GW) will be in Texas.
The installation of 2.5 GW of solar capacity in 2020 marked the beginning of the solar boom in Texas. We expect the state to add another 4.6 GW of solar capacity in 2021 and 5.4 GW in 2022, which will bring total installed solar capacity in Texas to 14.9 GW.
The federal solar Investment Tax Credit (ITC) that is available to project developers is driving some of the anticipated solar growth. Utility-scale solar projects that start construction in 2021 or 2022 are eligible for a 26% tax credit. The tax credit drops to 22% for projects that start in 2023 and to 10% for projects that start in 2024 or later.
Other factors driving solar investment in Texas include lower solar technology costs and plentiful sunlight, particularly in West Texas’s Permian Basin, where about 30% of the state’s planned solar capacity will be built. In addition, because solar generation is greatest in the middle of the day, when wind generation is typically lower, available transmission lines that already handle the large amount of wind power in the state have helped set the path for record-breaking planned solar capacity additions.
Despite recent solar capacity growth in Texas, utility-scale solar only made up 4% of the state’s generating capacity in 2020 and 2% of in-state electricity generation. In comparison, natural gas made up 53% of Texas’s capacity in 2020 and 52% of in-state generation; wind made up 23% of capacity and 20% of in-state generation.
Although wind capacity in Texas has grown rapidly in recent years, solar is expected to make up the largest share of the state’s capacity additions between 2020 and 2022. Almost half of the additions during this time period will be solar, surpassing wind (35%) and natural gas (13%) additions.
Principal contributor: Suparna Ray
The numbers from the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission are a bit off from the EIA data concerning exactly how much solar came online in February, but they’re close enough for government work.
The FERC numbers give us something nice to chew on. So far in 2021, greater than 99% of all electricity generation capacity installed in the USA came not from fossils, but from wind and solar. And the only new natural gas capacity was a small 9 MW plant that will probably have less than a 10% capacity factor.
Going forward, FSE is developing a set of tools to more automatically collect and distribute solar pv information from the EIA. If you have certain pieces of data, you think ought to be shared more widely, please do contact us and give some advice.
Florida is the third-largest energy consumer among the states, but its per capita energy consumption is fourth-lowest.
The Florida peninsula extends almost 450 miles south from the Georgia border to the Florida Keys in the Gulf of Mexico and includes the southernmost point in the continental United States.1 The state’s northern boundary stretches about 360 miles from the Atlantic Ocean across the Florida Panhandle to the Perdido River, the state’s western boundary with Alabama.2 Known as the Sunshine State, Florida has significant solar energy potential as well as substantial biomass resources and small amounts of oil and natural gas production.3,4,5,6 The warm waters of the Gulf Stream wrap around much of the state’s marine coastline and moderate Florida’s climate, which ranges from tropical to subtropical.7,8 The Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean make the state one of the most humid in the nation, with frequent summer thunderstorms and occasional devastating hurricanes. As a result, Florida has taken more direct hits from tropical storms and hurricanes than any other state in the nation.9,10
Until the 20th century, Florida was largely rural and sparsely populated, but it has been one of the fastest growing states during the past century, in part because air conditioning became widely available and because of the state’s popularity as a tourist and retirement destination.11,12 Florida is the third-most populous state and the third-largest energy-consuming state in the nation.13,14 However, Florida ranks fourth-lowest in per capita energy consumption, in part because of its large population, moderate winter weather, and relatively low industrial sector energy use.15,16 The transportation sector, which includes the energy used by the automobiles, trains, planes, and ships that bring the many tourists who visit Florida’s beaches and attractions, leads end-use energy consumption, and it accounted for about two-fifths of the state’s total energy use in 2019. The residential sector, where almost all homes use air conditioning, accounted for more than one-fourth of state energy consumption.17,18 Florida’s commercial sector accounted for more than one-fifth of state energy use and the industrial sector accounted for slightly more than one-tenth.19 Overall, Florida consumes almost eight times more energy than it produces.20
Florida is the second-largest producer of electricity in the nation.
Florida is the second-largest producer of electricity in the nation, after Texas.21 In 2020, natural gas fueled three-fourths of Florida’s in-state net generation, and 8 of the state’s 10 largest power plants by capacity and by generation are natural gas-fired.22,23 Natural gas has fueled the largest share of Florida’s electricity generation since 2003, when it surpassed coal’s contribution for the first time.24 Florida also leads the nation in generators that can switch between natural gas and fuel oil.25 Although petroleum-fired power plants provided less than 0.1% of Florida’s generation in 2020, petroleum liquids remain an important backup fuel source at many of the state’s natural gas-fired power plants.26 In 2020, almost two-thirds of the state’s natural gas-fired power plants could switch to petroleum fuels in the event of disruptions in the natural gas supply.27,28
The second-largest source of in-state generation in Florida is nuclear power. The state’s two nuclear power stations are located on Florida’s Atlantic Coast. Those two plants typically provide more than one-tenth of the state’s net generation.29,30,31 Two proposed additional nuclear reactors received licenses, but plans to construct those reactors are on hold because of increased construction costs and competition from other fuels.32 Coal-fired power plants supplied about 7% of Florida’s net generation in 2020, down from 36% in 2001. Renewable resources, mainly solar energy and biomass, plus petroleum coke and generation at industrial plants that use multiple fuels, accounted for almost all the remaining net generation in Florida.33 Almost all the state’s recent and planned additions of generating capacity are natural gas-fueled or solar powered.34
Florida is the third-largest electricity consumer in the nation, after Texas and California.35 However, the state does not produce enough electricity to meet its power needs, and electricity demand is expected to increase as the state’s population continues to grow.36,37,38 The residential sector, where more than 9 in 10 Florida households use electricity as their primary energy source for home heating and air conditioning, consumes more than half of the electricity used in Florida, the largest share of any state.39,40 The commercial sector accounts for about two-fifths of state consumption, and the industrial sector uses most of the rest. The transportation sector uses a very small amount of electricity.41 However, Florida is second only to California in the number of registered electric vehicles, and there are more than 2,300 public-access electric vehicle charging stations in the state.42,43
Solar energy and biomass provide almost all of Florida’s renewable-sourced electricity generation.
Renewable resources fueled about 5% of Florida’s in-state electricity net generation in 2020, and almost two-thirds of the state’s renewable generation came from solar energy.44 In 2020, Florida surpassed Arizona to become fourth in the nation, after California, Texas, and North Carolina, in total solar power generating capacity.45 About 85% of the state’s solar generation is at utility-scale (1 megawatt or larger) facilities.46 However, generation from small-scale installations (less than 1 megawatt) almost tripled between 2018 and 2020, in part because of the removal of state restrictions on leased solar systems.47,48 Florida is one of only four states with utility-scale electricity generation from solar thermal technologies, which concentrate sunlight to produce the high temperatures needed to power the turbines used to generate electricity.49,50 The Martin Next Generation Solar Energy Center in Martin County, Florida, contains both a hybrid solar thermal and a natural gas-fueled facility. The Martin plant has a 75-megawatt concentrating solar power facility, with almost 200,000 mirrors, and a 1,100-megawatt natural gas-fired power plant. It is the only concentrating solar thermal generating facility east of the Rocky Mountains.51,52
Florida accounts for about 7% of the nation’s biomass-fueled electricity generation, more than all but two other states, Georgia and California, and biomass fuels almost all of the non-solar renewable generation in Florida.53,54 The largest share of the state’s almost 1,200 megawatts of biomass-fueled generating capacity is at plants that process municipal solid waste, followed by those fueled by wood and wood waste. Although there are many landfill gas facilities in Florida, they account for only 6% of the state’s biomass generating capacity.55 Florida also has a variety of other biomass resources that are burned at utility-scale electricity generating facilities throughout the state. Those resources include sugarcane waste (bagasse), citrus pulp, forest residues, invasive trees and plants, animal waste, other agricultural residues, and yard waste.56 The state’s biomass resources also provide feedstock for a wood pellet manufacturing plant located in the state’s Panhandle. That plant has a production capacity of about 827,000 tons per year.57
Florida has few other renewable energy assets. Two hydroelectric plants in north Florida supply a small amount of power.58 However, the state’s flat terrain gives Florida little opportunity for hydropower development.59 The state has no significant wind resources, onshore or offshore, and there is no utility-scale wind-powered generating capacity.60,61,62
Florida does not have a renewable energy portfolio standard, but it does have state and local incentives, tax credits, and loan programs for certain renewable energy technologies.63,64 The state has adopted net metering and interconnection rules for qualifying customer-sited renewable energy generating facilities.65,66 Florida utilities also have individual energy efficiency goals set by the Florida Public Service Commission.67
Florida has minor crude oil reserves and accounts for less than 0.1% of the nation’s crude oil production.68,69 Onshore drilling for oil and gas in Florida began in 1901 and about 80 exploration wells were drilled in the state before oil was discovered in southwest Florida in 1943.70 Annual crude oil production in the state peaked at more than 47 million barrels in 1978 with the development of the Jay Field in the Panhandle in northwestern Florida. Since 1978, statewide production has declined and has been less than 2 million barrels in each year since 2008. In 2020, Florida crude oil production was less than 1.5 million barrels.71,72 Geologists believe there may be substantial additional reserves in federal waters off Florida’s western coast in the Gulf of Mexico.73 However, since 1989, Florida has banned drilling in both Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico state waters. In 2006, Congress banned oil and gas leasing in federal offshore areas in the central Gulf of Mexico planning area within 100 miles of Florida’s coastline and in most of the eastern Gulf of Mexico planning area within 125 miles of Florida’s coast. The ban on federal oil and gas leases off of the state’s Gulf coast was to expire in 2022, but a Presidential Memorandum signed in 2020 extends the ban for another 10 years and includes federal areas off Florida’s Atlantic coast.74,75,76
Florida does not have any crude oil refineries or interstate crude oil or petroleum product pipelines.77,78 The state relies on petroleum products delivered to Florida’s inland petroleum product terminals by rail, truck, tanker, and barge, and on deliveries to marine terminals located at several ports in the state.79 Petroleum products, including residual fuel oil, jet fuel, motor gasoline, low-sulfur distillate, and asphalt, arrive in Florida ports from around the world.80 An intrastate pipeline transports petroleum products—including motor gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel—as well as fuel ethanol from the Tampa Bay port area across central Florida to Orlando.81
Tourism and traffic through busy international airports drive petroleum consumption in Florida’s transportation sector.
More than nine-tenths of Florida’s petroleum consumption occurs in the transportation sector.82 In part because of Florida’s significant tourist industry and the heavy passenger and cargo traffic through its international airports, the state is among the top five petroleum-consuming states in the nation.83,84 In 2020, Florida ranked third in the nation in jet fuel consumption, and, in 2019, the state ranked third in total motor gasoline consumption as well.85,86 Even so, in part because of its large population, Florida is among the 10 states that use the least petroleum on a per capita basis.87 Florida does not require motor gasoline that is blended with ethanol, and federal requirements for cleaner-burning summer gasoline blends in the state’s urban areas were lifted in 2014.88,89 However, motor gasoline blended with ethanol is widely used, and Florida is the third-largest consumer of fuel ethanol in the nation. There are no fuel ethanol production plants in the state.90,91 Florida biodiesel consumption ranks among the top two-fifths of states, but the state’s last biodiesel production plant closed and the equipment was put up for sale in 2021.92,93,94
The industrial and commercial sectors account for almost all of the rest of the petroleum consumed in Florida. Because electric utilities have retired older petroleum-fired units and replaced many of them with natural gas-fired ones, the electric power sector now uses less than 1% of the petroleum consumed in the state. However, Florida is third in the nation, after Hawaii and Louisiana, in petroleum use for power generation. In the residential sector, where fewer than 1 in 100 households use petroleum products, mostly propane, for heating, consumes even less.95,96
Florida does not have significant natural gas reserves, but the state does have a small amount of natural gas production, all from the same fields that produce crude oil.97 Almost all of the state’s natural gas production is in the Jay Field in the Florida Panhandle, where most of the natural gas produced is reinjected into the oil zones to maintain reservoir pressures and improve oil production.98 As a result, only between about 5% and 15% of the state’s natural gas gross withdrawals are marketed.99 Florida’s annual natural gas production peaked at almost 52 billion cubic feet in 1978, less than 0.3% of the U.S. total that year, but declined steadily in the next three decades. Production rose to more than one-third of the state’s earlier peak in 2012, but declined again and was only slightly more than one-tenth of the 1978 amount in 2020.100 Economically recoverable natural gas reserves may lie offshore in the eastern Gulf of Mexico, but, as with crude oil, exploratory drilling in state and federal waters in the eastern Gulf is not allowed.101,102
Florida receives nearly all the natural gas it consumes from the Gulf Coast region via major interstate pipelines. Pipelines entering Florida bring natural gas into the state through Alabama and Georgia.103,104,105 One subsea pipeline runs 745 miles across the Gulf of Mexico, forming an offshore link from the Mississippi and Alabama border to central Florida.106,107 The electric power sector receives most of the natural gas delivered to Florida consumers. In 2020, electricity generation accounted for 87% of the state’s total natural gas use. The industrial sector used about 8% of state deliveries, and the commercial sector accounted for about 4%. The residential sector, where fewer than 1 in 20 households use natural gas as a primary home heating fuel, used only about 1%. A very small amount is consumed as vehicle fuel.108,109 There are fewer than 30 public-access compressed natural gas vehicle fueling stations in Florida.110
Florida does not have any coal reserves or production and relies on coal from several other states and from overseas to meet its limited coal demand.111,112 Domestic coal supplies for Florida’s coal-fired electricity generating plants came by railroad and barge from Illinois, Kentucky, and Indiana in 2020. Other Florida industries received a small amount of domestic coal from Kentucky, Alabama, and Illinois.113 Port Tampa Bay, the largest cargo port in Florida, received a small amount of imported coal in 2019, but none in 2020.114,115 Almost all coal consumed in Florida is used for electricity generation.116 However, coal-fired electricity generation in the state has declined as older coal-fired units retired and were replaced by natural gas-fired generation.117,118 Coal consumption in Florida’s electric power sector fell from 29 million tons in 2008 to less than 7 million tons in 2020.119
1 Atlas Obscura, Southernmost Point of the Continental U.S., accessed November 18, 2021.
2 State of Florida, Florida Quick Facts, Florida Geography, accessed November 18, 2021.
3 Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Office of Energy, 2020 Office of Energy Annual Report, p. 5.
4 Florida Energy Systems Consortium, Florida Energy Facts, Biomass Energy, accessed November 18, 2021.
5 U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Florida Field Production of Crude Oil, Annual, 1981-2020.
6 U.S. EIA, Florida Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals, Annual, 1971-2020.
7 Zimmerman, Kim Ann, “What is the Gulf Stream?” Live Science (January 15, 2013).
8 Norrell, Robert J., Florida, Climate, Britannica, updated November 5, 2021.
9 Griffin, Melissa, “Florida…The ‘Liquid’ Sunshine State,” The CoCoRaHS ‘State Climates’ Series, accessed November 18, 2021.
10 Donegan, Brian, “North Carolina Second Only to Florida for U.S. Tropical Storms and Hurricanes,” Weather Underground (September 11, 2018).
11 Hobbes, Frank, and Nicole Stoops, Demographic Trends in the 20th Century, U.S. Census Bureau, CENSR-4 (November 2002), p. 7, 22, 26.
12 Briney, Amanda, “The Sunbelt, The Sunbelt of the Southern and Western United States,” ThoughtCo., updated August 7, 2019.
13 U.S. Census Bureau, State Population Totals: 2010-2020, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2020; April 1, 2020; and July 1, 2020 (NST-EST2020).
14 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C11, Energy Consumption Estimates by End Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2019.
15 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C14, Total Energy Consumption Estimates per Capita by End-Use Sector, Ranked by State, 2019.
16 Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Office of Energy, 2020 Office of Energy Annual Report, p. 1.
17 U.S. EIA, Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), 2015 RECS Survey Data, Table HC7.8, Air conditioning in homes in the South and West regions, South Atlantic.
18 U.S. EIA, Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), 2009 RECS Survey Data, Table HC7.10, Air conditioning in South Region, divisions, and states.
19 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C1, Energy Consumption Overview: Estimates by Energy Source and End-Use Sector, 2019.
20 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table P3, Total Primary Energy Production and Total Energy Consumption Estimates in Trillion Btu, 2019.
21 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Annual 2020 (October 2021), Table 3.7, Utility Scale Facility Net Generation.
22 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Florida, Fuel Type (Check all), Annual, 2001-20.
23 U.S. EIA, Florida Electricity Profile 2020, Table 2A, Ten largest plants by capacity, 2020, and Table 2B, Ten largest plants by generation, 2020.
24 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Florida, Fuel Type (Check all), Annual, 2001-20.
25 U.S. EIA, “About 13% of U.S. electricity generating capacity can switch between natural gas and oil,” Today in Energy (February 11, 2020).
26 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Florida, Fuel Type (Check all), Annual, 2001-20.
27 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Form EIA-860 detailed data with previous form data (EIA-860A/860B), 2020 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, ‘Generator Data’ (Operable Units Only) and 2020 Form EIA-860 Data, Schedule 3, ‘Fuel Switching Data’ (Operable Units Only).
28 U.S. Department of Energy, State of Florida Energy Sector Risk Profile, accessed November 18, 2021, p. 7.
29 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Florida, updated March 19, 2020.
30 U.S. EIA, Florida Profile Overview, Nuclear Power Plant Map Layer, accessed November 19, 2021.
31 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Florida, All fuels, Nuclear, Annual, 2001-20.
32 Walton, Robert, “Nuclear regulators to license two new reactors at Turkey Point facility,” Utility Dive (April 9, 2018).
33 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Florida, Fuel Type (Check all), Annual, 2001-20.
34 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of August 2021, and Inventory of Planned Generators as of August 2021.
35 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C17, Electricity Retail Sales, Total and Residential, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2019.
36 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Annual 2020 (October 2021), Table 3.7, Utility Scale Facility Net Generation.
37 Florida Public Service Commission, Statistics of the Florida Electric Utility Industry (October 2021), Table 17, Projected Summer and Winter Peak Demand (Megawatts)2020-2029, p. 29.
38 Florida Department of Transportation, Forecasting and Trends Office, Projections of Florida Population by County, 2020-2070 (October 2020).
39 U.S. Census Bureau, Florida, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
40 U.S. EIA, Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), 2009 RECS Survey Data, Air Conditioning, Table HC7.10.
41 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F20, Electricity Consumption Estimates, 2019.
42 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Maps and Data, Electric Vehicle Registrations by State, updated June 2021.
43 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Alternative Fueling Station Locator, Florida, Electric, Access: Public, Available, accessed November 19, 2021.
44 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Florida, Fuel Type (Check all), 2001-20.
45 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Annual, Table 4.7.B, Net Summer Capacity Using Primarily Renewable Energy Sources and by State, 2020 and 2019.
46 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Annual, Table 3.21, Net Generation from Solar Photovoltaic by State, by Sector, 2020 and 2019.
47 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Florida, Fuel Type (Check all), 2001-20.
48 U.S. EIA, “Texas and Florida had large small-scale solar capacity increases in 2020,” Today in Energy (March 4, 2021).
49 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Annual, Table 3.22, Utility Scale Facility Net Generation from Solar Thermal by State, by Sector, 2020 and 2019.
50 U.S. EIA, Solar Explained, Solar Thermal Power Plants, updated February 17, 2021.
51 Neville, Angela, “Top Plant: Martin Next Generation Solar Energy Center, Indiantown, Martin County, Florida,” Power (December 1, 2011).
52 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Concentrating Solar Power Projects, Martin Next Generation Solar Energy Center, updated July 7, 2021.
53 U.S. EIA, Electric Power Annual, Table 3.19, Utility Scale Facility Net Generation from Biomass by State, by Sector, 2020 and 2019.
54 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Florida, Fuel Type (Check all), 2001-20.
55 U.S. EIA, Electricity, Preliminary Monthly Electric Generator Inventory (based on Form EIA-860M as a supplement to Form EIA-860), Inventory of Operating Generators as of August 2021.
56 Florida Energy Systems Consortium, Biomass Energy, accessed November 20, 2021.
57 U.S. EIA, Monthly Densified Biomass Fuel Report, Table 1, Densified biomass fuel manufacturing facilities in the United States by state, region, and capacity, August 2021.
58 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, List of plants for conventional hydroelectric, Florida, all sectors, 2020.
59 NETSTATE, Florida, The Geography of Florida, updated September 9, 2017.
60 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, Florida 80-Meter Wind Resource Map, accessed November 20, 2021.
61 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, WINDExchange, U.S. Offshore 90-Meter Wind Resource Potential, accessed November 20, 2021.
62 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Florida, Fuel Type (Check all), 2020.
63 National Conference of State Legislators, State Renewable Portfolio Standards and Goals, updated August 13, 2021.
64 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Programs, Florida, Financial Incentives, accessed November 20, 2021.
65 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Florida, Net Metering, updated September 21, 2021.
66 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Florida, Interconnection Standards, updated July 23, 2020.
67 NC Clean Energy Technology Center, DSIRE, Florida, Energy Efficiency Goals, updated November 11, 2015.
68 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production, Proved Reserves, as of December 31, 2014-19.
69 U.S. EIA, Crude Oil Production, Annual, 2015-20.
70 Wells, B.A. and K.L. Wells, “First Florida Oil Well,” American Oil & Gas Historical Society, updated September 20, 2021.
71 Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Division of Water Resource Management, Oil and Gas Program, Field Production Data_Graph, 2020, updated March 12, 2021, Excel File.
72 U.S. EIA, Florida Field Production of Crude Oil, Annual, 1981-2020.
73 U.S. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, 2016a National Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf, Table 13, Risk mean-level UERR for the Gulf of Mexico OCS Region by planning area, p. 63.
74 Online Sunshine, The 2021 Florida Statutes, Title XXVIII, 377.242, accessed November 21, 2021.
75 U.S. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Areas Under Restriction, accessed November 21, 2021.
76 U.S. Department of the Interior, “ICYMI: No Offshore Drilling around Florida and the Southern Atlantic,” Press Release (September 10, 2020).
77 U.S. EIA, Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, Total Number of Operable Refineries, 2016-21.
78 U.S. EIA, Florida Profile Overview, Crude Oil Pipeline Map Layer, accessed November 21, 2021.
79 U.S. EIA, Florida Profile Overview, Petroleum Product Terminal and Petroleum Port Map Layers, accessed November 21, 2021.
80 U.S. EIA, Petroleum and Other Liquids, Company Level Imports, Florida, accessed November 21, 2021.
81 Kinder Morgan, Products Pipelines, Central Florida Pipeline Company, accessed November 21, 2021.
82 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2019.
83 Airports Council International, North American Airport Traffic Report, link to Top 50 2020 North American Traffic Report.
84 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table C15, Petroleum Consumption, Total and per Capita, Ranked by State, 2019.
85 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F1, Jet Fuel Consumption, Price, and Expenditure Estimates, 2020.
86 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F3, Motor Gasoline Consumption, Price, and Expenditure Estimates, 2019.
87 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2019.
88 American Petroleum Institute, U.S. Gasoline Requirements (January 2018).
89 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gasoline Standards, Relaxation of Summer Gasoline Volatility Standard for Florida and the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill Area (Triangle Area) and the Greensboro/Winston-Salem/High Point Area (Triad Area) in North Carolina, accessed November 21, 2021.
90 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F25, Fuel ethanol consumption estimates, 2019.
91 U.S. EIA, U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity, U.S. fuel ethanol plant count by state, 2021.
92 U.S. EIA, U.S. Biodiesel Plant Production Capacity, U.S. biodiesel plant count by state, 2021.
93 Kotrba, Ron, “Miami-based Green Biofuels biodiesel plant equipment up for auction,” Biobased Diesel Daily (November 4, 2021).
94 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F26, Biodiesel Consumption Estimates, 2019.
95 U.S. EIA, State Energy Data System, Table F16, Total Petroleum Consumption Estimates, 2019.
96 U.S. Census Bureau, Florida, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
97 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of December 31, Florida, Annual, 2014-19.
98 Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Division of Water Resource Management, Oil and Gas Program, State Production Data, Florida Production Data 2000 to 2021, updated November 3, 2021, Excel File.
99 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production, Florida, Annual-Million Cubic Feet, 2015-20.
100 U.S. EIA, Florida Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals, 1971-2020.
101 U.S. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, 2016a National Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf (OCS Report BOEM 2017-085), Table 13, Risk mean-level UERR for the Gulf of Mexico OCS Region by planning area, p. 63.
102 Online Sunshine, The 2021 Florida Statutes, Title XXVIII, 377.242, accessed November 19, 2021.
103 U.S. EIA, International and Interstate Movements of Natural Gas by State, Florida, Annual, 2015-20.
104 “Sabal Trail Pipeline Begins Service,” Gas Compression Magazine (July 13, 2017).
105 Energy Transfer, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC, accessed November 19, 2021.
106 Gulfstream Natural Gas System, About Gulfstream, accessed November 19, 2021.
107 Enbridge, Natural gas transmission and midstream, U.S. Transmission, Gulfstream, accessed November 19, 2021.
108 U.S. EIA, Natural Gas Consumption by End Use, Florida, Annual, 2015-20.
109 U.S. Census Bureau, Florida, Table B25040, House Heating Fuel, 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
110 U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center, Alternative Fueling Station Locator, Florida, Natural gas, Access: Public, Available, accessed November 19, 2021.
111 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Table 15, Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2020.
112 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Table 1, Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Mine Type, 2020 and 2019.
113 U.S. EIA, Annual Coal Distribution Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), By Coal Distribution State, Florida, Table DS-7, Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2020.
114 U.S. EIA, Quarterly Coal Report, October-December 2020 (April 2021), Table 20, Coal Imports by Customs District.
115 Port Tampa Bay, Cargo and Bulk Cargo, accessed November 19, 2021.
116 U.S. EIA Annual Coal Report 2020 (October 4, 2021), Table 26, U.S. Coal Consumption by End Use Sector, Census Division, and State, 2020 and 2019.
117 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Net generation for all sectors, Florida, All fuels, Coal, Natural gas, 2001-20.
118 U.S. EIA, “Natural gas-fired power generation has grown in Florida, displacing coal,” Today in Energy (September 9, 2019).
119 U.S. EIA, Electricity Data Browser, Receipts of fossil fuels by electricity plants for all sectors, Florida, Coal, 2008-20.
Chairman Senator Joe Manchin’s Opening Statement
Thursday, November 16, 2021
Full Committee Hearing On
Domestic And International Energy Price Trends
• Now I’ll turn to hearing that bring us together today.
• The topic of this hearing is very timely with the rising energy prices
that we’re seeing right now across the country and around the globe.
• Prices are rapidly rising across gasoline, diesel, heating oil, natural
gas, electricity and even coal.
• This is in stark contrast to prices that bottomed out during the
pandemic as economies around the globe slowed.
• But, now as our economies are rebounding, we’re seeing soaring
gasoline prices and heating bills are expected to go up 10, 20, 30 or
even 40% in the coming months according to the Energy Information
Administration’s winter outlook.
• This is impacting all of our constituents.
• In fact, the consumer price index for energy has increased by 30%
over the last 12 months.
• Affordable, reliable, and dependable energy is part of what made us a
superpower, and it’s critical that we maintain that and keep these
prices under control.
• Internationally, the worst crunch is in Europe and Asia.
• This fall, we’ve seen the demand for natural gas, coal and crude oil
surge across global markets leading to high electricity prices in
Europe and Asia.
• This has led to curbs on electricity use in China, protests in Spain,
and bankruptcies of some small power companies and shuttering of
power-intensive factories in the U.K.
• In China, it’s been recently reported that coal production was rapidly
expanded in an attempt to meet electricity needs, with a new slogan
of “guarantee the supply”.
• The energy supply crunch and high prices are of concern since global
economies are increasingly dependent on our U.S. supplies, primarily
natural gas, and we’re not as insulated from global prices as we once
• We’ve seen our natural gas prices increase to over $5 per million
British Thermal Units (BTUs) – their highest level in seven years.
That’s a fraction of what they’re paying in Europe but it’s still a big
increase for us.
• I understand that there are a number of factors contributing to the
situation, but the primary cause is the demand generated from a rapidly
shifting economy that is outpacing primary energy production,
especially with respect to natural gas.
• I hope we will have ample discussion on how long we can expect this
imbalance to last and what policies are key to ensuring we do not see
energy prices as high as in Europe and Asia.
• The recent price trends show how global energy markets are
becoming increasingly interconnected, correlating domestic prices
with global demand to a higher degree than we’ve seen in the past.
• Fuels for dispatchable power in Europe and Asia have been in high
demand, resulting in record exports of U.S. coal and natural gas.
• In particular, high natural gas prices of over $30 per million BTU in
Europe have made it a lucrative market for U.S. producers.
• Our LNG exports in October increased to about 9.8 billion cubic feet
per day – about 9 percent of domestic production – and it’s expected
that exports are set to increase further this winter.
• U.S coal exports to serve Asian markets, and in particular China,
have followed a similar trend.
• U.S. coal exports in the 2nd quarter of this year jumped to 20.6
million tons, a more than 50% increase from the same timeframe last
• These record numbers are positive for American producers and for
our economy but come with negative implication for the global
climate and for consumers paying higher prices to stay warm this
• Another huge concern is the 60% increase from last year that
American consumers are paying at the pump for gasoline.
• Crude oil prices, which are the main driver of gasoline prices, have
rebounded significantly following their collapse in the midst of the
pandemic from negative $36 per barrel in April of last year to over
• Oil producers ramped down their operations following the collapse in
oil prices and production levels still aren’t matching rebounding
• Domestic refiners continue to be dependent on imported heavy crude
oil, keeping our prices linked to organizations like OPEC who won’t
always have our best interests at heart or in mind.
• This raises reliability and geopolitical concerns and underscores the
need for pipelines that can bring crude oil and related products to
domestic refiners from our allies like Canada.
• In closing, I think this Committee has the responsibility to tackle these
complex issues that will inform the solutions we produce to promote
energy security and independence [and to], ensure energy affordability and
reliability of our customers, while also achieving our decarbonization
• I look forward to hearing from each of you on the outlook for the energy
markets and prices which we will use to inform our policymakers to make decisions
going forward. And with that, I’ll turn it over to Senator Barrasso for
his opening statement